Reading between the Lines

This project, funded by the Israel Science Foundation, centers on the widespreadMaulud photo phenomenon of interlinear translation in Indonesia.

Interlinear texts include an original text on the page, for example in Arabic, with a word for word translation into a local language, for example Javanese, Malay or Sundanese, written between the lines. Such translations played a key role in processes of religious and cultural transformations across the Indonesian Archipelago from the 16th century onwards.